The Psychology of New Year’s Resolutions

The Psychology of New Year’s Resolutions

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As we put the holidays behind us and dig out from underneath all of the wrapping paper, many of us turn to the upcoming New Year’s celebration 2018 to engage in a ritual that any visiting alien might be puzzled by — New Year’s resolutions. Why do humans pick a single point in time each year to try and change certain things in their life — behaviors, attitudes, what-not — make resolutions about them, and then proceed to fail at them within a month’s time?

The most popular New Year’s goals people set, according to Miller and Marlatt (1998) are:

1)  37% – Starting to exercise

2) 13% – Eating better

3)  7% – Reducing the consumption of alcohol, caffeine and other drugs, or quitting smoking

According to the same survey, most people — 75 percent — who make a resolution fail on their first attempt and most people — 67 percent — make more than one resolution.

So, from a psychological perspective, it might be interesting to ask what exactly determines how many goals people set and how successful they are. Luckily for us, researchers Mukhopadhyay and Johar (2005) did just that and came to some interesting conclusions.

Their research found that people who believe that self-control is something dynamic, changing and unlimited (e.g., “I can stop smoking, all I have to do is put my mind to it. I can also change my eating and be a better person, it just takes willpower.”) tend to set more resolutions.

People who believe that we all are born with a limited, set amount of self-control that one cannot change (e.g., “I can’t help myself from eating all this chocolate — I inherited the ‘chocolate gene’ from my mom!”) and who also have little belief in their own capabilities to carry out their own goals (they have what psychologists refer to as “low self-efficacy”) naturally did worse on obtaining their New Year’s resolution goals.

As the researchers summarized, individuals with high self-efficacy attribute failure to insufficient effort, while individuals with low self-efficacy attribute failure to deficient ability. Higher self-efficacy generally is correlated with a greater likelihood of achieving one’s goals.

The investigators also found that if you are made to believe that self-control is a fixed or limited resource that you can’t change, you will also set fewer goals and will give up on them sooner, regardless of your level of self-efficacy.

What all of this means is that you’ll do better on your New Year’s goals if you believe that self-control is indeed an unlimited resource that we all have access to and can leverage with our resolutions. The more you believe in your own capabilities — high self-efficacy — the more likely you will succeed as well. And it also seems to help to set more goals, because you will be more likely to succeed at them if you do (people who set fewer goals seem to often go into the exercise with the self-fulfilling expectation of failing).

Other research points to having the actual skills to make the changes you’re proposing for your life. For instance, it’s all fine and well to say you want to stop smoking But do you really have any idea on how to do so? Researching the most effective methods for quitting ahead of time predicts better success in actually achieving your goal. And of course, being ready to change also helps. If you don’t want to change and so only make a half-hearted resolution to do so, don’t be surprised by your amazing lack of success.

 

Miller & Marlatt (1998) also suggest the following:

To be successful with your own resolutions:

1.  Have a strong initial commitment to make a change.

2. Have coping strategies to deal with problems that will come up.

3.  Keep track of your progress. The more monitoring you do and feedback you get, the better you will do.

Ingredients for setting yourself up for resolution failure include:

1. Not thinking about making resolutions until the last minute.

2 Reacting on New Year’s Eve and making your resolutions based on what’s bothering you or is on your mind at that time.

3.  Framing your resolutions as absolutes by saying, “I will never do X again.”

Good luck with your own New Year’s resolutions!

Wishing you and your family Happy New Year. Have a great year 2018 ahead.

 

Diabetes and Weight loss

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Diabetes and Weight loss —

 Article by

Dr Vivek Sharma M.D. Medicine.

 

 

Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high.The pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat that is mostly affected by diabetes.

Types-

 Type1 and Type2: With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

 

What is CHOLESTEROL?

 Cholesterol is a type of fat that circulates in your blood. Cholesterol comes from two sources:

 Your body makes some cholesterol on its own, regardless of what you eat.

 Cholesterol also comes from the foods you eat. Cholesterol is found only in animal products. Foods from plants do not contain cholesterol.

 

TYPES include-

 LDL known as ‘Bad Cholesterol’ and HDL known as ‘Good Cholesterol’. Think of LDLs as delivery trucks and HDLs as garbage trucks. LDLs pick up cholesterol from the liver and deliver it to cells. HDLs remove excess cholesterol from the blood and take it to the liver. A person’s total cholesterol level is a combination of LDL and HDL cholesterol.

 

So does these diabetes and cholestrol act to ‘GAIN WEIGHT’?

 

How Cholesterol acts to Weight Gain? What are the causes behind it??

 Eating too much saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol can cause high cholesterol. Saturated fat and cholesterol are in foods that come from animals, such as meats, whole milk, egg yolks, butter, and cheese. Trans fat is found in fried foods and packaged foods, such as cookies, crackers, and chips.The increased cholesterol level clogs the arteries.Plaques are formed as clusters on the walls of the stomach that increases weight.

 

How diabetes act to weight gain? The Causes…

 The two types actually behave differently. Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make people lose weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body stops producing the hormone insulin, which is needed to use glucose, the main type of sugar in the blood.

 

In contrast to this most people are overweight when they’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, and if someone who already has type 2 diabetes gains weight, it will be even harder to control blood sugar levels.

 

People with type 2 diabetes have a condition called insulin resistance. They’re able to make insulin but their bodies can’t use it properly to move glucose into the cells. So the amount of glucose in the blood rises. The pancreas then makes more insulin to try to overcome this problem.

 

PREVENT YOURSELVES FROM WEIGHT GAIN IN SUCH CONDITIONS-

 Heart-healthy Eating Overall

 Following a heart-healthy eating plan is one of the best ways to help you reach your blood lipid goals. A heart-healthy plan has the following characteristics:

 It is low in saturated and trans fat. This means limiting fats that are solid at room temperature such as butter, some stick margarines, shortening, and lard, and consuming less red meat, cheese, whole milk, and fast food.

 Ginger

 Ginger has been used for centuries in traditional medicine in Asia and India, primarily to treat digestive disorders, arthritis, and heart conditions. It’s currently used in modern medicine to treat nausea associated with chemotherapy, motion sickness, and even morning sickness during pregnancy. Ginger may also help fight heart disease and lower cholesterol.

 Guggulipid

 Guggulipid is a supplement derived from the resin of the mukul myrrh tree. It contains compounds called guggulsterones, which initially were shown to lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in both human and animal studies done in India

 Soluble fiber and Dietary fibres

 Soluble fiber, or viscous fiber, is found in certain foods, including oatmeal, oat bran, and other oat products, dried beans and peas (black beans, chickpeas, lentils), barley, flaxseed, nuts, apples, oranges, prunes, carrots, Brussels sprouts, and psyllium (seed husks found in some fiber supplements and bran cereals).

 Exercise

 Do you exercise in order to reduce your weight as it the basis of god and natural health. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dietitian-nutritionist.

 Type 2 Diabetes and Exercise – Exercise Makes It Easier to Control Your Diabetes

 

Regular exercise is highly recommended if you are suffering from type 2 diabetes. In addition to taking medications, exercises help in regulating your blood sugar levels. Besides, staying active and fit help you in maintaining your weight levels; thereby keeping a check on diabetes.

1.Running: Running is a hassle free workout that you can do anywhere. You can start with 10 minutes of running and then gradually progress on to 30 minutes. Running helps in maintaining your body weight at optimal levels, and is also an excellent method of losing fat.

2.Strength Training: Lifting weight to build your muscles is an effective method of controlling Type-2 diabetes. It allows the muscles in the body to use glucose in an effective manner. In addition, muscles burn calories even when you are at rest, so the sugar in your bloodstream is utilized more effectively. Aim to do a whole body workout for at least three days a week.

3.Metabolic Circuits: Metabolic circuits are a type of exercise that elevates your metabolism for a long time after you are finished with your workout. These circuits involve doing one exercise after the other with minimal rest. It is also very good in burning fat from the body.

 In addition to the above tips, you should make it a point to keep yourself active throughout the day. From taking the stairs to taking small walk breaks in between your work, these help in burning calories and maintaining optimal blood sugar levels.

if you have any question, Let us know.

 

 

What Is Depression?

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What Is Depression?

Depression is a serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act.

Depression has a variety of symptoms, but the most common are a deep feeling of sadness or a marked loss of interest or pleasure in activities. Other symptoms include:

Changes in appetite that result in weight losses or gains unrelated to dieting

Insomnia or oversleeping

Loss of energy or increased fatigue

Restlessness or irritability

Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt

Difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions

Thoughts of death or suicide or attempts at suicide.

 

Depression is common. It affects nearly one in 10 adults each year—nearly twice as many women as men. It’s also important to note that depression can strike at any time, but on average, first appears during the late teens to mid-20s. Depression is also common in older adults. Fortunately, depression is very treatable.

 

How Depression and Sadness Are Different

The death of a loved one, loss of a job, or the ending of a relationship are difficult experiences for a person to endure. It is normal for feelings of sadness or grief to develop in response to such stressful situations.

 

Those experiencing trying times often might describe themselves as being “depressed.”

But sadness and depression are not the same. While feelings of sadness will lessen with time, the disorder of depression can continue for months, even years. Patients who have experienced depression note marked differences between normal sadness and the disabling weight of clinical depression.

 

What Causes Depression?

Depression can affect anyone—even a person who appears to live in relatively ideal circumstances.

But several factors can play a role in the onset of depression:

 

Biochemistry. Abnormalities in two chemicals in the brain, serotonin and norepinephrine, might contribute to symptoms of depression, including anxiety, irritability and fatigue. Other brain networks undoubtedly are involved

as well; scientists are actively seeking new knowledge in this area.

 

Genetics. Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70%

chance of having the illness sometime in life.

 

Personality. People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be vulnerable to depression.

Environmental factors. Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make people who are already susceptible to depression all the more vulnerable to the illness.

Also, a medical condition (e.g., a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can cause depression, so it is important to be evaluated by a psychiatrist or other physician to rule out general medical causes.

 

How Is Depression Treated?

For many people, depression cannot always be controlled for any length of time simply by exercise, changing diet, or taking a vacation. It is, however, among the most treatable of mental disorders: between 80% and 90% of people with depression eventually respond well to treatment, and almost all patients gain some relief from their symptoms.

 

Before a specific treatment is recommended, a psychiatrist should conduct a thorough diagnostic evaluation, consisting of an interview and possibly a physical examination. The purpose of the evaluation is to reveal specific symptoms, medical and family history, cultural settings and environmental factors to arrive at a proper diagnosis

and to determine the best treatment.

 

Medication: Antidepressants may be prescribed to correct imbalances in the levels of chemicals in the brain. These

medications are not sedatives, “uppers” or tranquilizers. Neither are they habit-forming. Generally antidepressant  medications have no stimulating effect on those not experiencing depression.

Antidepressants may produce some improvement within the first week or two of treatment. Full benefits may not  be realized for two to three months. If a patient feels little or no improvement after several weeks, his or her psychiatrist will alter the dose of the medication or will add or substitute another antidepressant.

Psychiatrists usually recommend that patients continue to take medication for six or more months after symptoms  have improved. After two or three episodes of major depression, long-term maintenance treatment may be  suggested to decrease the risk of future episodes.

 

Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy, or “talk therapy,” is sometimes used alone for treatment of mild depression; for moderate to severe depression, it is often used in combination with antidepressant medications. Psychotherapy may  involve only the individual patient, but it can include others. For example, family or couples therapy can help

address specific issues arising within these close relationships. Group therapy involves people with similar illnesses.

Depending on the severity of the depression, treatment can take a few weeks or substantially longer. However, in

many cases, significant improvement can be made in 10 to 15 sessions.

 

 

 

Conclusion

Depression is never normal and always produces needless suffering. With proper diagnosis and treatment, the vast majority of people with depression will overcome it. If you are experiencing symptoms of depression, see your

family physician or psychiatrist, describe your concerns and request a thorough evaluation. You will feel better.

If you have some issue with Depression ,you can contact us .

 

RaGa you are 100% Genuine FAKE. Doing Astroturfing on Indians .

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Astroturfing

 

Dear Friends Now RaGa was caught red handed for buying Tweets RTs and facebook likes. This phenomenon is known as Astroturfing.

 In this article we will discuss what is astroturfing.

 “Astroturfing” is a political, public relations, or advertising campaign that deceptively and artificially creates an impression of widespread grassroots support for a product, policy, or concept,when in actuality limited support exists.

Typically,a corporation or political group employs  astroturfing to promote corporate concerns while claiming to represent the public interest and community concerns.

The term is a derivation of AstroTurf, a brand of artificial carpet designed to simulate natural grass.

Astroturfers mimic and reproduce the forms and messages of traditional grassroots social movements and use software to mask their identities.

 Dummy interest and pressure groups (called  front groups) are often used to create the perception of public backing of the client’s agenda and  to hide the identity of the organization or corporation funding the astroturfing effort. The names of corporate front groups are strategically selected to disguise the actual funders of the group. For instance, during the debate over the 2009 American health care law, the drug lobby PhRMA and the Service Employees International Union ran television ads under the group called Americans  for Stable Quality Care. Another common technique is the mobilization of thousands of supporters or the creation of numerous online personas to post reviews and comments, call into talk radio shows, and ballot stuff online surveys. The Public Relations Society of America has decried the practice as unethical and considers assisting front groups as malpractice under the organization’s code of ethics.

 

The term dates back to 1985, when U.S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen responded to the large number of postcards arriving in his office by saying, “a fellow from Texas can tell the difference between grassroots  and astroturf. . . . This is generated mail. ”Such techniques, however, have a long history.

In Julius Caeser, William Shakespeare describes Cassius writing letters “in several hands . . . as if

they came from several citizens” to urge Brutus to join the conspiracy against Caesar. Astroturfing techniques flourished in the United States and are an accepted, if often hidden, aspect of public relations campaigns. Today, astroturf efforts are especially in political consulting and digital communications firms and are usually called issue campaigns or grassroots advocacy.

 

Modern astroturfing campaigns are incredibly sophisticated. Many public relations firms maintain databases of citizens willing to mobilize for various companies and causes. If a voter database does not exist, consumer lifestyle databases are  consulted to locate sympathetic voters located in a targeted politician’s district. Public opinion polling and focus groups help refine the messages most likely to resonate with the targeted groups.

Talking points and scripts are provided to the supporters, and the supporters are encouraged (and   frequently paid) to make phone calls and send  e-mails to their elected officials, to write letters to  the newspaper, and post comments on their social networking profiles. Supporters are also encouraged   and paid to fill rooms at town hall meetings.

An astroturf campaign will also usually include several media events and press conferences, fullpage   advertisements in insider media outlets such as Politico and Roll Call, and paid research studies  supporting the effort.

A spin-off technique, known as grass tops, uses  influential community leaders such as mayors,

religious leaders, and business executives to lobby members of Congress and regulators. Instead of blanketing Capitol Hill with thousands of identical  postcards, grass tops advocacy mobilizes a

handful of local and regional public opinion leadersin key states to make the case to lawmakers.

 

 

Social Media

Technological advances, including e-mail, voter databases, automated phone services, telephone banks, and social networking, decreased the cost of astroturfing and fostered its popularity. For example, persona management software can generate thousands of fictitious identities and add a degree of realness by creating a name, e-mail account, and social media profile for each virtual account, randomizing the operator’s Internet protocol (IP) address or establishing IP addresses

in specific geographic locations to trick geolocation services and linking dummy accounts to the   profiles of other fake accounts to add legitimacy.

These fake accounts are referred to as sock puppets, and the practice of using misleading online identities is known as sockpuppeting.

Astroturfing campaigns are frequently used on the Internet to generate buzz and word of mouth via blogs, Twitter, and social networking sites. In 2006, for instance, a travel blog called Wal-Marting Across America, which appeared to chronicle a couple’s cross-country trip in an RV while staying in Wal-Mart parking lots, was revealed to be  funded by a front group named Working Families

for Wal-Mart and written by employees of the public relations firm Edelman, who represented  Wal-Mart. On Web sites like Yelp and Amazon, astroturfers write glowing reviews. In 2010, a government investigation found that iPhone game developers were paying the public relations agency Reverb Communications to post positive  reviews of games in Apple’s App Store, which gave the impression that the reviews were authored by disinterested consumers. Governments have also used the technique.

The Chinese government reportedly trains and funds thousands of comment atorsto permeate Internet forums and message boards with progovernment comments in an attempt to shape public opinion.

In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission’s Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising require product reviewers, endorsers, and others providing testimonials to disclose material connections such as payments or free products.

So by law in the United States, Twitter and Facebook users, bloggers, and individuals writing product reviews on e-commerce sites must disclose connections they share with the seller of the product or service. This includes celebrities, who often endorse products in traditional advertisements and on Web sites and social networking sites.

 

For RaGa and AK my impression about you is that you are 100% Genuine FAKE.

 

 

STOP ASTROTURFING. STOP MAKING INDIANS PAPPUS. 

If you agree Kindly share it to make other people aware and Stop being PAPPUS.

Are you Social Media Addict ?

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In this article, we will discuss about what is Social media addiction, how to rate it, How to understand which type of personality are prone to have this problem.

 

Social media addiction is an increasingly popular term used to represent heavy use of social networks that interferes with daily life.

 

Many studies have shown that social media possess addictive qualities similar to drug, alcohol, or chemical addictions. Terms associated with social media withdrawal, similar to those of other addiction withdrawals, include frantically craving, very anxious, extremely antsy, miserable, and jitter.

 

Excessive usage of social media is only beginning to be examined in a modern, media-laden world as a possible psychiatric disorder and by product of the cultural adoption of mediated platforms at an increasing rate. The scope and examination of social media addiction is derived from studies that focus on Internet addiction.

 Forms

The six different types of social media outlets from which addiction may stem are (1) Wikipedia, (2) blogs and microblogs, such as Twitter; (3) content  communities, such as YouTube; (4) social networking sites, such as Facebook; (5) virtual game worlds, such as World of Warcraft; and (6) virtual social worlds, such as Second Life.

 Cell phone addiction is identified as a form of social media addiction.

 Assessment

Although mobile technology may increase social media addiction issues, some scholars say that engaging social media regularly is an activity that benefits children and adolescents by enhancing communication, social connection, and even technical   skills.

Questions of whether social media addicts are addicted to the platform of social media or the associated content have become an area of increasing debate among psychological communities. Scholars identify that social media users become addicted to different aspects of media usage.

 

Andreassen identified addiction occurring more regularly among younger users than older users. Andreassen also identified that people who are anxious and socially insecure use social media more than others, possibly because those who suffer from social anxiety find it easier to communicate via social  media than face to face.

 

People scoring high on narcissism tend to be more active on social network sites as those  sites provide opportunities to present oneself in a  favorable way in line with one’s ideal self.

 The five-factor model of personality, also known as the Big Five. (1) extraversion (being outgoing and talkative),

(2) agreeableness (being sympathetic and warm),

(3) conscientiousness (being organized and prompt),

 (4) neuroticism (being nervous and moody), and

 (5) openness to experience (being creative and intellectually oriented).

 Social media addictive tendencies have been reported to be positively related to extraversion and negatively related to conscientiousness. Scholars have reported that extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were all positively associated with frequency of social media use. It has been suggested that extroverts use social media for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be associated with elevated use.

 Rating Scale used to asses this problem

 Andreassen’s Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale is based on six basic criteria, where all items are

scored on the following scale:

(1) very rarely,

(2) rarely,

(3) sometimes,

(4) often, and

(5) very  often:

 The Facebook Attitude  Scale.

The Online Sociability Scale.

The Addictive Tendencies Scale

 

Conclusions

Overall, the swell of social media prominence and its associated addictive qualities is an area of increased investigation from academic, corporate, and technological orientation. As media increases bandwidth, cell phone networks continue to stream faster data, and device capacity increases, the end user is interacting with more complex information becoming traded on social media spaces.

 If you have any  problem ,you can contact me .

Indian Models of Psychotherapy.

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Definition of Psychotherapy:

Wolberg defined psychotherapy is the treatment by psychological

means of problems of an emotional nature in which a trained person deliberately establishes a professional relationship with the patient with the object-

 

  1. Of removing, modifying or retarding existing symptoms.
  2. Mediating disturbed patterns of behavior.
  3. Of promoting positive personality growth and development.

 

 

 

History of psychotherapy in India:

 

 Psychotherapy in India has a long history. Indian philosophies consist culturally congruous psychotherapeutic system. Psychiatrists have commented extensively on psychotherapeutic principles described in the Bhagavad Gita (Govindswamy 1970) Satyanand 1972 & Venkoba Rao (1974). India has traditional Psychotherapeutic systems from the past like Yoga, Vendantha, Buddism and Meditation. Other types of psychotherapy in use are Religions and faith healers, Exorcism.

 

Yoga Therapy:

 

Patanjali, the foremost exponent of  Yoga, defined it as ‘Chitra Vritti Nirodha’. In order to develop greater control over all the aspects of personality functions, Patanjali presented a method generally known as Ashtang Yoga.

 

Asthang Yoga consisted of 8 steps: They are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.

 

The first two provided guidelines for behavior in a social milleu.

Vahia view the first two (Yama, Niyama) as consisting essentials of psychotherapy. These guidelines help an individual to realize that behavior should be basically decided by objective and realistic assessment of his abilities and the environmental needs. He should then channelize his abilities in any chosen field of activity with a sense of dedication and free from preoccupation with the resultant gains.

 

The feeling of well being came from a sense of satisfaction derived from dedicated use of his abilities. The greater the pre-occupation with the resultant feedback, the greater proneness to dysfunction. He could meditate on the chosen auditory or visual object for so long a duration that even the time sense was lost. Controlled and dedicated use of mental and physical abilities in a tension free environment lead to internal & external harmony and therefore harmony of all the personality functions. Vahia, Vinekar, Doongaji et al.  Studied the value of Yoga in Psychiatric disorder. They compared yoga with chlordizepoxide and Amitryptyline in anxiety and depression. They assessed patients on Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, Hamilton’s depression scale and Bell’s social adaptation before & after the treatment and during the follow up period of 6-12 months. They found the yoga significant superior

In the relief of anxiety and improvement of social adaptation.

 

Transcendental Meditation (T.M.)

 

 

 It disposes of all the other steps of yoga and concentrates only on meditation. The technique consists in the individual sitting upright with eyes closed, silently repeating the mantra given by his teacher. The major difference between T.M. & more traditional techniques of meditation is its essentially non-coercive, permissive nature.

 

Vipassana Meditation

 

The primary object is to be watching the rise and, fall of the belly, slightly above the navel, caused by breathing in and out. It is not a concentration technique, so while watching the breath, many other things will take your attention away. Nothing is a dis­traction in vipassana, so when something else comes up, stop watching the breath, pay attention to whatever is happening until it’s possible to go back to your breath.

 

Religious and faith-healers:

 

A strong faith in the tenets of religion & supernatural phenomenon and powers on part of both the therapist and clients is a necessary prerequisites for the success of this kind of therapy. The therapeutic situation contains three important ingredients i.e., a shared world view personal qualities of the therapist high expectations of the patient.

 

However, the evidence regarding the efficacy is patchy, it strongly suggests that this therapy almost certainly helps those suffering from certain types of neurotic problems especially hysterical neurosis. It is quite likely, that the faith healer may who have adversely harmed certain patient, both by using unsatisfactory techniques and by delaying proper medical treatment.

 

Exorcists:

 

The exorcists share the religious halo and reverence with the faith healers, they are generally not considered to be holy or religious people, but are thought of as possessing supernatural or magical powers which may both be benevolent and malevolent. They are locked up on by the general population more with fear than with reverence. The therapy primarily consists of a trance induced by the therapist and the patient participate. The exorcist thus, attempts to drive away the offending spirit or influence. Producing noxious and unpleasant smoke and gases, beating or branding the patient, engaging into fangled dancing and many similar techniques may be adopted in the process.

 

Thought may be useful in some cases, the fact that they often beat up or even brand their patients with hot iron which in turn will cause both physical and psychological trauma.

 

 

New Therapeutic Paradigm The late M.V. Govindaswamy, the founder director of All India Institute of Mental health, Bangalore used to say “MAHABHARATA” Is a great textbook of Psychopathology and Gita a great treating in Psychotherapy. Venkoba Rao & Parvathi Devi have discerned in this timeless epic (Gita) a psychosomatic paradigm for the treatment of body & mind. Satyanand holds that the Gita frees you from guilt sense in its own framework, resolves repression, supplies energy & morale by making you dig deeper still in your own self & develop insight into its working

Guru Chela Relationship as a Therapeutic Paradigm:

 

Neki examine the dynamics, the modes operandi of the guru as well as the goals of such a therapy. This paradigm appears Particularly tenable where self-discipline rather than self-expression is the cherished goal. The guru image is certainly more difficult to wear than that of a western psychotherapist. In the guru chela transaction, the guru is the more active of the two parties, he has to assume responsibility for the decision taken and insight provided.

 Comments and reservations are often expressed by many Indian Psychiatrists & other mental health professionals regarding the place, the relevance for India of Psychotherapy, as it is understood in the West.

 

For example, Neki feels: Westernized Indians living in large cosmopolitan cities. Commenting on some of the difficulties in this area Surya & Jayaram says. “As compared to his western counterpart. The Indian patient is more ready to expect and accept dependency relationships, less ready to seek intrapsychic explanations, more ready to discard ego bounds and involve the therapist in direct role relationships, and finally his ideal or idealized support is the good joint family older, more readily alludes to conceptual references like karma, Dharma & traditional figures for orientation. The Position taken by Surya & Jayaram, has been supported by many other authors who have voiced reservation regarding practicability of transposing psychotherapy developed in one culture to some other culture.

 

Responding to above views Prabhu (1988) commented that Western Psychotherapy has been considered unsuitable for Indian patients on the grounds that they are less independent and are resistant to personal responsibility and decision making process. In this argument, dependence – independence etc., are looked upon as dichotomies based on the all or none law. These characteristics are rest seen as existing on a continuum or a dimension. Even in the West a Psychotherapist would come across patient who are dependent. He recommends that the therapist has to be sensitive to individual characteristics and make necessary adjustments. He also refutes the argument that to Indian culture. He suggests the therapist should broaden his perspective towards a universal form of therapy to mitigate human suffering.

 

 

CONCLUSION:

 

Indian models of psychotherapy have not received adequate attention from psychotherapists. Only few people have made use of these models and demonstrated their efficacy. Being acceptable to many Indians & needing less man power, if practiced with enthusiasm would benefit large number of patients. involving general practioners and other health workers, faith healers exorcists in the practice of psychotherapy and educating them about the basic principles of Psychotherapy would benefit large number of patients.

If you wants to know more .Let me know .

Is your child is restless and Naughty.

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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received a great deal of clinical, scientific, and public attention in recent years.

 

ADHD is believed to be the most common psychiatric disorder in children, affecting 3 to 5 percent of the school-age population.

 

Most children with ADHD are referred between the ages of 6 to 12. Therefore, symptoms of the disorder are described mainly for this age group. However, it should be noted that ADHD can be problematic in the preschool age group and continues into adolescence and adulthood.

 

Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

A. Either (1) or (2):
  (1) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
Inattention
    (a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
    (b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
    (c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
    (d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
    (e) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
    (f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
    (g) often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)
    (h) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
    (i) is often forgetful in daily activities
  (2) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
    Hyperactivity
    (a) often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
    (b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
    (c) often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
    (d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
    (e) is often on the go or often acts as if driven by a motor
    (f) often talks excessively
    Impulsivity
    (g) often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
    (h) often has difficulty awaiting turn
    (i) often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
B. Some hyperactiveimpulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years.
C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home).
D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder).
Different  type  of  ADHD —
  Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder, combined type
  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type
  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type

 

 

 

 

Medical evaluations should include a complete medical history and a comprehensive physical examination.

School Related assessment—Observations of the child in the classroom gives information about the  child.

Social Functioning

A view of the child’s social functioning can be obtained via reports and ratings from the child, the parents, and the teacher. In addition, observations at school, home, or on the playground can also tap the child’s social behavior. Finally, socio-metric evaluation via ratings from classmates or other peers are another valuable measure of social functioning,

 

Some key standardized measures used in the assessment of ADHD.

 

TREATMENT

Medication Treatment

 

Stimulants

 

Stimulant medication  improve impulsivity, inattention, school behavior, and social and family functioning in 75 to 80 percent of children with ADHD.

Nonstimulant Medication in the Treatment of Children with ADHD

Even though there is general agreement that stimulants constitute the first-line treatment choice for children with ADHD, because some children do not respond to stimulants .

 

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD

 

Psychosocial treatment of children with ADHD refers to non-medication treatment one can include, such as

1) Psychoeducation,

2) Academic organization skills

3) Remediation,

4) Parent training,

5) Behavioral modification,

6) Cognitive-behavioral therapy,

7) Social skills training, and

8) Family and individual therapy.

 

Psychosocial treatment appears to be an important adjunct to medication treatment for children with ADHD. Efficacy for parent training, behavioral therapy, and some social skills training has been documented. Family therapy may be beneficial in decreasing family conflict and improving the emotional climate at home. Individual therapy may help in areas of self-esteem and secondary problems of depression and anxiety.

if you have some problems with your child ,let me know.

 

 

 

 

Treatment of Alcohol Related Disorders .

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Treatment of   Alcohol Related Disorders.

 

 

Alcohol use disorders are common, lethal conditions that often masquerade as other psychiatric syndromes. The average alcohol-dependent person decreases his or her life span by 10 to 15 years, and alcohol contributes to 22,000 deaths and two million nonfatal injuries each year.

 

At least 20 percent of the patients in mental health settings have alcohol abuse or dependence.

TREATMENT 

Between 10 and 40 percent of alcoholic people enter some form of treatment during the course of their alcohol problems.

The elements of treatment appropriate for patients with severe alcohol problems are fairly straightforward. The core of these efforts involves steps to maximize motivation for abstinence, helping alcoholics to restructure their lives without alcohol, and taking steps to minimize a return, or relapse, to substance-using behaviors.

Three general steps are involved in treating the alcoholic person once the disorder has been diagnosed:

a) Intervention,

b) Detoxification,

c) Rehabilitation.

 

Intervention

The goal in this step is to break through feelings of denial and to help the patient recognize the adverse consequences likely to occur if the disorder is not treated. Intervention is a process aimed at increasing to as high a level as possible the levels of motivation for treatment and for continued abstinence.

 

Reaching out to the Family

The family can be of great help in the intervention. Members must learn not to protect the patient from the problems caused by alcohol, or else the patient may not be able to generate the energy and the motivation necessary to stop drinking.

 

Detoxification

Most people with alcohol dependence have relatively mild symptoms when they stop drinking.

 

Mild or Moderate Withdrawal

Withdrawal develops because the brain has physically adapted to the presence of a brain depressant and cannot function adequately in the absence of the drug. Giving enough of a brain depressant on the first day to diminish symptoms and then weaning the patient off the drug over the next 5 days offers most patients optimal relief and minimizes the possibility that a severe withdrawal will develop.

 

Severe Withdrawal

For less than 1 percent of alcoholic patients with extreme autonomic dysfunction, agitation, and confusion—that is, those with alcoholic withdrawal delirium, also called delirium tremens

 

Rehabilitation

For most patients, rehabilitation includes three major components:

(1) continued efforts to increase and maintain high levels of motivation for abstinence,

(2) work to help the patient readjust to a lifestyle free of alcohol, and

(3) relapse prevention.

 

Counseling

Counseling efforts in the first several weeks to months should focus on day-to-day life issues to help patients maintain a high level of motivation for abstinence and to enhance their levels of functioning

Relapse Prevention

The third major component of rehabilitation efforts, relapse prevention, begins with identifying situations in which the risk for relapse is high

Self-Help Groups

Clinicians must recognize the potential importance of self-help groups such as AA. Members of AA have help available 24 hours a day, associate with a sober peer group, learn that it is possible to participate in social functions without drinking, and are given a model of recovery by observing the accomplishments of sober members of the group.

 

 

If you need any help for quitting the nicotine you can contact me or  WhatsApp me at address given below.

 

 

TREATMENT OF NICOTINE ADDICTION

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TREATMENT OF NICOTINE ADDICTION

 Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent, deadly, and costly of substance dependencies.

 Given the substantial negative consequences of smoking, and the finding that 70% of smokers report wanting to quit, the goal of making effective treatment options available to all smokers has become a public health priority.

 According to the Guideline’s treatment model for clinical settings, tobacco use status (current, former, or never) should be assessed and documented for each patient. Current smokers should be advised to quit and their motivation to do so should be assessed.

Pharmacologic Interventions

 

The Guideline identified five first-line and two second-line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. First-line pharmacotherapies are those that reliably increase long-term smoking abstinence rates; are safe and effective for the treatment of tobacco dependence; and are approved for this purpose by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

 These medications have been empirically tested for efficacy and are recommended, unless contraindicated for reasons such as pregnancy/breast-feeding or smoking fewer than 10 cigarettes per day.

 

First-line pharmacotherapies include bupropion sustained release (Zyban) and four types of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler,nicotine nasal spray, and nicotine patch.

 

Second-line medications also have demonstrated efficacy but are not FDA-approved and therefore play a more limited role in treatment. Because there is greater concern about potential side effects, second-line pharmacotherapies should only be considered after first-line treatments have proven ineffective.

 

Behavioral Interventions

 

Advice to quit smoking—

 Recommendation—

 

All physicians and clinicians should strongly advise every patient who smokes to quit. Evidence shows that physician advice to quit increases abstinence rates and it is reasonable to believe that clinicia  advice should also be effective.

 Every tobacco user should be offered at least a minimal intervention.

Four or more sessions of person-to-person treatment, with a session length of at least 10 minutes and a total contact time of 30 minutes per session, appears especially effective in increasing abstinence rates.

Treatment format –

The following are effective and should be used in smoking cessation interventions:

Proactive telephone counseling

Group counseling

Individual counseling

Interventions that are delivered in multiple formats increase abstinence rates and should be encouraged.

 

Cigarette smoking, once referred to as a habit, meets established medical criteria for drug dependence. Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes dependence or addiction, similar to the role of ethanol in alcoholic beverage consumption, or cocaine in coca leaf.

 

If you need any help for quitting the nicotine you can contact me at address given below.

 

 

Ways to Avoid Divorce and Build a Better Marriage

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Marriages require the maximum efforts from both the individuals. Given the growing concept of individualism and personal independence, people fail to put in or sometimes understand the requirement of working towards their marriage, leaving them searching for an escape route as soon as the going gets tough. Marital issues may lead to major individual psychological problems with each partner trying to hurt the other emotionally as the relationship gets bitter. Consequently, divorce rates in this country have shown a considerable increase in the past decade.

This article should help you figure out some of the ways to save and improve the bond that is marriage while keeping the importance of individualism and personal space in mind-

Teamwork: It is essential for both the individuals to work towards their marriage and show equal commitment. With only one person trying to build a better relationship while the other one shows minimal effort and goes astray reduces the sense of belongingness; eventually leading to estrangement.

 

Take Responsibility: Apologize when it’s your mistake and take responsibility for your actions, instead of going around in a continuous loop of the blame game.

Keep the Spark Alive: Take out time for each other whenever possible. A simple date night once in awhile or a weekend getaway with undivided attention to the partner helps to keep the romance alive in long term relationships which more often than not fades away with time, without effort from the partners.

Appreciate: Appreciating the partner’s efforts are probably the most important factor in any marriage. It avoids the individual feeling as though he/she has been taken for granted; which is the root cause of most marital problems.

Therapy: Marital therapy is usually beneficial when people are unable to deal with their differences within the marriage. Some therapists use a client-centred approach in understanding the issues. In a collectivist society like ours, family therapy is usually used because the family of both the partners play a major role in their lives.

if you  have any issue regarding the above issue .You can contact me on given below address.