What is Drug Rehabilitation

admin No Comments


Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or   psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.

The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence, if present, and cease substance abuse to avoid the psychological legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme abuse. Treatment includes medication for depression or other disorders, counseling by experts and sharing of experience with other addicts.


Psychological dependency-

Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment. In particular, patients are generally encouraged, or possibly even required, to not associate with friends who still use the addictive substance.

Twelve-step programs encourage addicts not only to stop using alcohol or other drugs, but also to examine and change habits related to their addictions. Many programs emphasize that recovery is a permanent process without culmination. For legal drugs such as alcohol, complete abstention—rather than attempts at moderation, which may lead to relapse—is also emphasized, (“One is too many, and a thousand is never enough.”)


Types of treatment

The brain’s chemical structure is impacted by drugs of abuse and these changes are present long after an individual stops using, this change in brain structure increases risk for relapse, making treatment an important part of the rehabilitation process.


Various types of programs offer help in drug rehabilitation, including:

1)            Residential treatment (in-patient/ out-patient),

2)            Local support groups,

3)            Extended care centers,

4)            Recovery or sober houses,

5)            Addiction counselling,

6)            Mental health and medical care.

For individuals addicted to prescription drugs, treatments tend to be similar to those who are addicted to drugs affecting the same brain systems.


Rehab pathways.


Types of behavioral therapy include:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which seeks to help patients to recognize, avoid and cope with situations in which they are most likely to relapse.

Multidimensional family therapy, which is designed to support recovery of the patient by improving family functioning.

Motivational interviewing, which is designed to increase patient motivation to change behavior and enter treatment.

Motivational incentives, which uses positive reinforcement to encourage abstinence from the addictive substance.

Treatment can be a long process and the duration is dependent upon the patient’s needs and history of abuse. Research has shown that most patients need at least 3 months of treatment and longer durations are associated with better outcomes.


Medicines are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use, and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration, and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction. Both drugs may be used as maintenance medications (taken for an indefinite period), or used as detoxification aids.


A few antidepressants have been proven helpful in the context of smoking cessation/nicotine addiction; these medications include bupropion and nortriptyline.

Residential treatment

In-patient residential treatment for alcohol abuse is usually quite expensive without proper insurance. Most American programs follow a traditional 28–30 day program length. The length is based solely upon providers’ experience in the 1940s that clients needed about one week to get over the physical changes, another week to understand the program, and another week or two to become stable. 70 to 80 percent of American residential alcohol treatment programs provide 12-step support services.

These include, but are not limited to AA, NA, CA, Al-Anon. One recent study suggests the importance of family participation in residential treatment patient retention, finding “increased program completion rate for those with a family member or significant other involved in a seven-day family program.”





The definition of recovery remains divided and subjective in drug rehabilitation, as there are no set standards for measuring recovery. The Betty Ford Institute defined recovery as achieving complete abstinence as well as personal wellbeing while other studies have considered “near abstinence” as a definition.



Traditional addiction treatment is based primarily on counseling.

Counselors help individuals identifying behaviors and problems related to their addiction. It can be done on an individual basis, but it is more common to find it in a group setting and can include crisis counseling, weekly or daily counseling, and drop-in counseling supports. They are trained to develop recovery programs that help to reestablish healthy behaviors and provide coping strategies whenever a situation of risk happens. It is very common to see them work also with family members who are affected by the addictions of the individual, or in a community to prevent addiction and educate the public. Counselors should be able to recognize how addiction affects the whole person and those around him or her.

 Counseling is also related to “Intervention”; a process in which the addict’s family requests help from a professional to get this person into drug treatment. This process begins with one of this professionals’ first goals: breaking down denial of the person with the addiction. Denial implies lack of willingness from the patients or fear to confront the true nature of the addiction and to take any action to improve their lives, besides of continuing the destructive behavior. Once this has been achieved, professional coordinates with the addict’s family to support them on getting this family member to alcohol drug rehabilitation immediately, with concern and care for this person. Otherwise, this person will be asked to leave and expect no support of any kind until going into drug rehabilitation or alcoholism treatment. An intervention can also be conducted in the workplace environment with colleagues instead of family.

One approach with limited applicability is the Sober Coach. In this approach, the client is serviced by provider(s) in his or her home and workplace – for any efficacy, around-the-clock – who functions much like a nanny to guide or control the patient’s behavior.

Twelve-step programs (12 steps)–

The disease model of addiction has long contended the maladaptive patterns of alcohol and substance use displayed by addicted individuals are the result of a lifelong disease that is biological in origin and exacerbated by environmental contingencies. This conceptualization renders the individual essentially powerless over his or her problematic behaviors and unable to remain sober by himself or herself, much as individuals with a terminal illness are unable to fight the disease by themselves without medication. Behavioral treatment, therefore, necessarily requires individuals to admit their addiction, renounce their former lifestyle, and seek a supportive social network who can help them remain sober. Such approaches are the quintessential features of Twelve-step programs, originally published in the book Alcoholics Anonymous in 1939.



 SMART Recovery

Joe Gerstein founded SMART Recovery in 1994 by basing REBT as a foundation. It gives importance to the human agency in overcoming addiction and focuses on self-empowerment and self-reliance. [32] It does not subscribe to disease theory and powerlessness. The group meetings involve open discussions, questioning decisions and forming corrective measures through assertive exercises. It does not involve a lifetime membership concept, but people can opt to attend meetings, and choose not to after gaining recovery. Objectives of the SMART Recovery programs are:

  1. Building and Maintaining Motivation.
  2. Coping with Urges.
  3. Managing Thoughts, Feelings and Behaviors.
  4. Living a balanced Life.
  5. This is considered similar to other self-help groups who work within mutual aid concepts.
  6. Client-centered approaches

In his influential book, Client-Centered Therapy, in which he presented the client-centered approach to therapeutic change, psychologist Carl Rogers proposed there are three necessary and sufficient conditions for personal change: unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, and genuineness. Rogers believed the presence of these three items in the therapeutic relationship could help an individual overcome any troublesome issue, including alcohol abuse. To this end, a 1957 study compared the relative effectiveness of three different psychotherapies in treating alcoholics who had been committed to a state hospital for sixty days: a therapy based on two-factor learning theory, client-centered therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. Though the authors expected the two-factor theory to be the most effective, it actually proved to be deleterious in outcome. Surprisingly, client-centered therapy proved most effective. It has been argued, however, these findings may be attributable to the profound difference in therapist outlook between the two-factor and client-centered approaches, rather than to client-centered techniques per se.[37] The authors note two-factor theory involves stark disapproval of the clients’ “irrational behavior” (p. 350); this notably negative outlook could explain the results.

A variation of Rogers’ approach has been developed in which clients are directly responsible for determining the goals and objectives of the treatment. Known as Client-Directed Outcome-Informed therapy (CDOI), this approach has been utilized by several drug treatment programs

Relapse prevention

An influential cognitive-behavioral approach to addiction recovery and therapy has been Alan Marlatt’s (1985) Relapse Prevention approach.

 Marlatt describes four psychosocial processes relevant to the addiction and relapse processes:

  1.  self-efficacy,
  2. outcome expectancies ,
  3.  attributions of causality, and
  4.  decision-making processes.

Self-efficacy refers to one’s ability to deal competently and effectively with high-risk, relapse-provoking situations. Outcome expectancies refer to an individual’s expectations about the psychoactive effects of an addictive substance. Attributions of causality refer to an individual’s pattern of beliefs that relapse to drug use is a result of internal, or rather external, transient causes (e.g., allowing oneself to make exceptions when faced with what are judged to be unusual circumstances). Finally, decision-making processes are implicated in the relapse process as well. Substance use is the result of multiple decisions whose collective effects result in consumption of the intoxicant.


Cognitive therapy-

An additional cognitively based model of substance abuse recovery has been offered by Aaron Beck, the father of cognitive therapy and championed in his 1993 book Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse. This therapy rests upon the assumption addicted individuals possess core beliefs, often not accessible to immediate consciousness (unless the patient is also depressed). These core beliefs, such as “I am undesirable,” activate a system of addictive beliefs that result in imagined anticipatory benefits of substance use and, consequentially, craving. Once craving has been activated, permissive beliefs (“I can handle getting high just this one more time”) are facilitated. Once a permissive set of beliefs have been activated, then the individual will activate drug-seeking and drug-ingesting behaviors. The cognitive therapist’s job is to uncover this underlying system of beliefs, analyze it with the patient, and thereby demonstrate its dysfunctionality. As with any cognitive-behavioral therapy, homework assignments and behavioral exercises serve to solidify what is learned and discussed during treatment.

Emotion regulation and mindfulness

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is showing evidence that it is effective in treating substance abuse, including the treatment of poly-substance abuse and cigarette smoking. Mindfulness programs that encourage patients to be aware of their own experiences in the present moment and of emotions that arise from thoughts appear to prevent impulsive/compulsive responses. Research also indicates that mindfulness programs can reduce the consumption of substances such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana, cigarettes and opiates.

Behavioral models

Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training

Behavioral models make use of principles of functional analysis of drinking behavior. Behavior models exists for both working with the substance abuser (Community Reinforcement Approach) and their family (Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training). Both these models have had considerable research success for both efficacy and effectiveness. This model lays much emphasis on the use of problem solving techniques as a means of helping the addict to overcome his/her addiction.

if you had any question regarding Drug  Rehabilitation ,feel free  to contact us ,at given below address.



Pretty Good Privacy OR Bad Privacy.

admin No Comments

Digital world creates the situation where there are no secrets anymore.




Pretty Good Privacy, commonly known as PGP, is a user-friendly computer application used to  encrypt e-mail correspondence. PGP can also be used to include an encrypted digital signature to an e-mail message without encrypting the message. PGP is the most widely used encryption software  for e-mail correspondence worldwide.

 Pretty Good Privacy was the creation of Phillip  Zimmerman who, in 1984, first conceived of the  idea of a widely available, cost-free, open source computer program that ordinary people could use  to send and receive e-mail correspondence that  could not be read by others.

According to Zimmerman, his concept for PGP relied on a programming “breakthrough” that had occurred more than a decade before, involving the most essential(and most vulnerable) element in any secret   communication scheme: turning plain text into coded text, and vice versa. Thus, if a user wished to send someone else an encrypted message, he  or she had to give the recipient the necessary key to unlock the encryption code. The challenge was to develop a protocol to send the encryption key  so that it could not be intercepted and thus make  secret communications not so secret.

Zimmerman pondered the question of how to  exchange encryption keys over a period of years,  developing PGP’s complex algorithms in the limited free time he had available between parenting  and engaging in freelance work. It was not until a clause introduced by U.S. Congress in a proposed  anti-terrorism bill that Zimmerman threw himself into the task of completing PGP and making it available to anyone who wished to use it.

Zimmerman  first uploaded the source code to PGP into a USENET newsgroup in June 1991, and invited people to use it for free. Shortly thereafter, PGP was used by human rights activists in what, at the time, was the intensely conflict-ridden region of the Yugoslav successor states, most notably in Kosovo, Sarajevo, and Croatia. It was also used in the early 1990s in volatile states including,but certainly not limited to, Guatemala.

There,in 1992, Dr. Patrick Ball collaborated with the International Center for Human Rights Research in Guatemala (CIIDH) to develop a database of more than 43,000 human rights violations that he protected from the authorities through PGP encryption.

The Impact of PGP

At the time of the release of PGP, Zimmerman argued the encryption software “dramatically changed the security landscape.” Zimmerman noted, “Before PGP, there was no way for two ordinary people to communicate over long distances without the risk of interception. Not by phone, not by FedEx, not by fax.” Users, ranging from human rights defenders to students, wrote to Zimmerman to report that he only thing standing between them and oppressive regimes was his technology.

Zimmermann was promptly “considered the Godfather of encryption software,” according to the New York Times. Such wide attention had a downside for Zimmerman; shortly after its release, PGP came to the attention of the U.S.

National Security Administration (NSA), the government body that oversees all issues pertaining to encryption. The NSA informed Zimmerman in February 1993 that he was being  investigated for violating U.S. export control laws. Because the U.S. government considered encryption software weaponry at the time, PGP was restricted for export under a munitions clause of import/export.

 Interestingly, while at the time, it was illegal to transport PGP on a (then commonly used) floppy disk or computer hard drive, it was possible to carry a printout of the million or so lines of Zimmerman’s computer code that instructed the functionality of PGP.

The NSA eventually dropped the charges in January 1996, after which Zimmerman founded the commercial startup PGP Inc., which was purchased by Network Associates in 1997.

 Zimmerman’s prediction in 2000, that “We’ll be accessing the Internet all the time, which means a dramatic increase in security requirements,” eventually led him to a partnership with former U.S. Navy Seals security expert Mike Janke and their start-up, Silent Circle, a security firm that encrypts phone calls, texts, and video calls. Silent Circle reported a 400 percent increase in new customers after the 2013 disclosures about the National Security Agency’s surveillance efforts.



Do not fear Digital world , it will not kill us  all.




The Psychology of New Year’s Resolutions

admin No Comments


As we put the holidays behind us and dig out from underneath all of the wrapping paper, many of us turn to the upcoming New Year’s celebration 2018 to engage in a ritual that any visiting alien might be puzzled by — New Year’s resolutions. Why do humans pick a single point in time each year to try and change certain things in their life — behaviors, attitudes, what-not — make resolutions about them, and then proceed to fail at them within a month’s time?

The most popular New Year’s goals people set, according to Miller and Marlatt (1998) are:

1)  37% – Starting to exercise

2) 13% – Eating better

3)  7% – Reducing the consumption of alcohol, caffeine and other drugs, or quitting smoking

According to the same survey, most people — 75 percent — who make a resolution fail on their first attempt and most people — 67 percent — make more than one resolution.

So, from a psychological perspective, it might be interesting to ask what exactly determines how many goals people set and how successful they are. Luckily for us, researchers Mukhopadhyay and Johar (2005) did just that and came to some interesting conclusions.

Their research found that people who believe that self-control is something dynamic, changing and unlimited (e.g., “I can stop smoking, all I have to do is put my mind to it. I can also change my eating and be a better person, it just takes willpower.”) tend to set more resolutions.

People who believe that we all are born with a limited, set amount of self-control that one cannot change (e.g., “I can’t help myself from eating all this chocolate — I inherited the ‘chocolate gene’ from my mom!”) and who also have little belief in their own capabilities to carry out their own goals (they have what psychologists refer to as “low self-efficacy”) naturally did worse on obtaining their New Year’s resolution goals.

As the researchers summarized, individuals with high self-efficacy attribute failure to insufficient effort, while individuals with low self-efficacy attribute failure to deficient ability. Higher self-efficacy generally is correlated with a greater likelihood of achieving one’s goals.

The investigators also found that if you are made to believe that self-control is a fixed or limited resource that you can’t change, you will also set fewer goals and will give up on them sooner, regardless of your level of self-efficacy.

What all of this means is that you’ll do better on your New Year’s goals if you believe that self-control is indeed an unlimited resource that we all have access to and can leverage with our resolutions. The more you believe in your own capabilities — high self-efficacy — the more likely you will succeed as well. And it also seems to help to set more goals, because you will be more likely to succeed at them if you do (people who set fewer goals seem to often go into the exercise with the self-fulfilling expectation of failing).

Other research points to having the actual skills to make the changes you’re proposing for your life. For instance, it’s all fine and well to say you want to stop smoking But do you really have any idea on how to do so? Researching the most effective methods for quitting ahead of time predicts better success in actually achieving your goal. And of course, being ready to change also helps. If you don’t want to change and so only make a half-hearted resolution to do so, don’t be surprised by your amazing lack of success.


Miller & Marlatt (1998) also suggest the following:

To be successful with your own resolutions:

1.  Have a strong initial commitment to make a change.

2. Have coping strategies to deal with problems that will come up.

3.  Keep track of your progress. The more monitoring you do and feedback you get, the better you will do.

Ingredients for setting yourself up for resolution failure include:

1. Not thinking about making resolutions until the last minute.

2 Reacting on New Year’s Eve and making your resolutions based on what’s bothering you or is on your mind at that time.

3.  Framing your resolutions as absolutes by saying, “I will never do X again.”

Good luck with your own New Year’s resolutions!

Wishing you and your family Happy New Year. Have a great year 2018 ahead.


RaGa you are 100% Genuine FAKE. Doing Astroturfing on Indians .

admin No Comments



Dear Friends Now RaGa was caught red handed for buying Tweets RTs and facebook likes. This phenomenon is known as Astroturfing.

 In this article we will discuss what is astroturfing.

 “Astroturfing” is a political, public relations, or advertising campaign that deceptively and artificially creates an impression of widespread grassroots support for a product, policy, or concept,when in actuality limited support exists.

Typically,a corporation or political group employs  astroturfing to promote corporate concerns while claiming to represent the public interest and community concerns.

The term is a derivation of AstroTurf, a brand of artificial carpet designed to simulate natural grass.

Astroturfers mimic and reproduce the forms and messages of traditional grassroots social movements and use software to mask their identities.

 Dummy interest and pressure groups (called  front groups) are often used to create the perception of public backing of the client’s agenda and  to hide the identity of the organization or corporation funding the astroturfing effort. The names of corporate front groups are strategically selected to disguise the actual funders of the group. For instance, during the debate over the 2009 American health care law, the drug lobby PhRMA and the Service Employees International Union ran television ads under the group called Americans  for Stable Quality Care. Another common technique is the mobilization of thousands of supporters or the creation of numerous online personas to post reviews and comments, call into talk radio shows, and ballot stuff online surveys. The Public Relations Society of America has decried the practice as unethical and considers assisting front groups as malpractice under the organization’s code of ethics.


The term dates back to 1985, when U.S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen responded to the large number of postcards arriving in his office by saying, “a fellow from Texas can tell the difference between grassroots  and astroturf. . . . This is generated mail. ”Such techniques, however, have a long history.

In Julius Caeser, William Shakespeare describes Cassius writing letters “in several hands . . . as if

they came from several citizens” to urge Brutus to join the conspiracy against Caesar. Astroturfing techniques flourished in the United States and are an accepted, if often hidden, aspect of public relations campaigns. Today, astroturf efforts are especially in political consulting and digital communications firms and are usually called issue campaigns or grassroots advocacy.


Modern astroturfing campaigns are incredibly sophisticated. Many public relations firms maintain databases of citizens willing to mobilize for various companies and causes. If a voter database does not exist, consumer lifestyle databases are  consulted to locate sympathetic voters located in a targeted politician’s district. Public opinion polling and focus groups help refine the messages most likely to resonate with the targeted groups.

Talking points and scripts are provided to the supporters, and the supporters are encouraged (and   frequently paid) to make phone calls and send  e-mails to their elected officials, to write letters to  the newspaper, and post comments on their social networking profiles. Supporters are also encouraged   and paid to fill rooms at town hall meetings.

An astroturf campaign will also usually include several media events and press conferences, fullpage   advertisements in insider media outlets such as Politico and Roll Call, and paid research studies  supporting the effort.

A spin-off technique, known as grass tops, uses  influential community leaders such as mayors,

religious leaders, and business executives to lobby members of Congress and regulators. Instead of blanketing Capitol Hill with thousands of identical  postcards, grass tops advocacy mobilizes a

handful of local and regional public opinion leadersin key states to make the case to lawmakers.



Social Media

Technological advances, including e-mail, voter databases, automated phone services, telephone banks, and social networking, decreased the cost of astroturfing and fostered its popularity. For example, persona management software can generate thousands of fictitious identities and add a degree of realness by creating a name, e-mail account, and social media profile for each virtual account, randomizing the operator’s Internet protocol (IP) address or establishing IP addresses

in specific geographic locations to trick geolocation services and linking dummy accounts to the   profiles of other fake accounts to add legitimacy.

These fake accounts are referred to as sock puppets, and the practice of using misleading online identities is known as sockpuppeting.

Astroturfing campaigns are frequently used on the Internet to generate buzz and word of mouth via blogs, Twitter, and social networking sites. In 2006, for instance, a travel blog called Wal-Marting Across America, which appeared to chronicle a couple’s cross-country trip in an RV while staying in Wal-Mart parking lots, was revealed to be  funded by a front group named Working Families

for Wal-Mart and written by employees of the public relations firm Edelman, who represented  Wal-Mart. On Web sites like Yelp and Amazon, astroturfers write glowing reviews. In 2010, a government investigation found that iPhone game developers were paying the public relations agency Reverb Communications to post positive  reviews of games in Apple’s App Store, which gave the impression that the reviews were authored by disinterested consumers. Governments have also used the technique.

The Chinese government reportedly trains and funds thousands of comment atorsto permeate Internet forums and message boards with progovernment comments in an attempt to shape public opinion.

In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission’s Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising require product reviewers, endorsers, and others providing testimonials to disclose material connections such as payments or free products.

So by law in the United States, Twitter and Facebook users, bloggers, and individuals writing product reviews on e-commerce sites must disclose connections they share with the seller of the product or service. This includes celebrities, who often endorse products in traditional advertisements and on Web sites and social networking sites.


For RaGa and AK my impression about you is that you are 100% Genuine FAKE.




If you agree Kindly share it to make other people aware and Stop being PAPPUS.

Treatment of Alcohol Related Disorders .

admin No Comments

Treatment of   Alcohol Related Disorders.



Alcohol use disorders are common, lethal conditions that often masquerade as other psychiatric syndromes. The average alcohol-dependent person decreases his or her life span by 10 to 15 years, and alcohol contributes to 22,000 deaths and two million nonfatal injuries each year.


At least 20 percent of the patients in mental health settings have alcohol abuse or dependence.


Between 10 and 40 percent of alcoholic people enter some form of treatment during the course of their alcohol problems.

The elements of treatment appropriate for patients with severe alcohol problems are fairly straightforward. The core of these efforts involves steps to maximize motivation for abstinence, helping alcoholics to restructure their lives without alcohol, and taking steps to minimize a return, or relapse, to substance-using behaviors.

Three general steps are involved in treating the alcoholic person once the disorder has been diagnosed:

a) Intervention,

b) Detoxification,

c) Rehabilitation.



The goal in this step is to break through feelings of denial and to help the patient recognize the adverse consequences likely to occur if the disorder is not treated. Intervention is a process aimed at increasing to as high a level as possible the levels of motivation for treatment and for continued abstinence.


Reaching out to the Family

The family can be of great help in the intervention. Members must learn not to protect the patient from the problems caused by alcohol, or else the patient may not be able to generate the energy and the motivation necessary to stop drinking.



Most people with alcohol dependence have relatively mild symptoms when they stop drinking.


Mild or Moderate Withdrawal

Withdrawal develops because the brain has physically adapted to the presence of a brain depressant and cannot function adequately in the absence of the drug. Giving enough of a brain depressant on the first day to diminish symptoms and then weaning the patient off the drug over the next 5 days offers most patients optimal relief and minimizes the possibility that a severe withdrawal will develop.


Severe Withdrawal

For less than 1 percent of alcoholic patients with extreme autonomic dysfunction, agitation, and confusion—that is, those with alcoholic withdrawal delirium, also called delirium tremens



For most patients, rehabilitation includes three major components:

(1) continued efforts to increase and maintain high levels of motivation for abstinence,

(2) work to help the patient readjust to a lifestyle free of alcohol, and

(3) relapse prevention.



Counseling efforts in the first several weeks to months should focus on day-to-day life issues to help patients maintain a high level of motivation for abstinence and to enhance their levels of functioning

Relapse Prevention

The third major component of rehabilitation efforts, relapse prevention, begins with identifying situations in which the risk for relapse is high

Self-Help Groups

Clinicians must recognize the potential importance of self-help groups such as AA. Members of AA have help available 24 hours a day, associate with a sober peer group, learn that it is possible to participate in social functions without drinking, and are given a model of recovery by observing the accomplishments of sober members of the group.



If you need any help for quitting the nicotine you can contact me or  WhatsApp me at address given below.




admin No Comments


 Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent, deadly, and costly of substance dependencies.

 Given the substantial negative consequences of smoking, and the finding that 70% of smokers report wanting to quit, the goal of making effective treatment options available to all smokers has become a public health priority.

 According to the Guideline’s treatment model for clinical settings, tobacco use status (current, former, or never) should be assessed and documented for each patient. Current smokers should be advised to quit and their motivation to do so should be assessed.

Pharmacologic Interventions


The Guideline identified five first-line and two second-line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. First-line pharmacotherapies are those that reliably increase long-term smoking abstinence rates; are safe and effective for the treatment of tobacco dependence; and are approved for this purpose by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

 These medications have been empirically tested for efficacy and are recommended, unless contraindicated for reasons such as pregnancy/breast-feeding or smoking fewer than 10 cigarettes per day.


First-line pharmacotherapies include bupropion sustained release (Zyban) and four types of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler,nicotine nasal spray, and nicotine patch.


Second-line medications also have demonstrated efficacy but are not FDA-approved and therefore play a more limited role in treatment. Because there is greater concern about potential side effects, second-line pharmacotherapies should only be considered after first-line treatments have proven ineffective.


Behavioral Interventions


Advice to quit smoking—



All physicians and clinicians should strongly advise every patient who smokes to quit. Evidence shows that physician advice to quit increases abstinence rates and it is reasonable to believe that clinicia  advice should also be effective.

 Every tobacco user should be offered at least a minimal intervention.

Four or more sessions of person-to-person treatment, with a session length of at least 10 minutes and a total contact time of 30 minutes per session, appears especially effective in increasing abstinence rates.

Treatment format –

The following are effective and should be used in smoking cessation interventions:

Proactive telephone counseling

Group counseling

Individual counseling

Interventions that are delivered in multiple formats increase abstinence rates and should be encouraged.


Cigarette smoking, once referred to as a habit, meets established medical criteria for drug dependence. Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes dependence or addiction, similar to the role of ethanol in alcoholic beverage consumption, or cocaine in coca leaf.


If you need any help for quitting the nicotine you can contact me at address given below.



Ways to Avoid Divorce and Build a Better Marriage

admin No Comments


Marriages require the maximum efforts from both the individuals. Given the growing concept of individualism and personal independence, people fail to put in or sometimes understand the requirement of working towards their marriage, leaving them searching for an escape route as soon as the going gets tough. Marital issues may lead to major individual psychological problems with each partner trying to hurt the other emotionally as the relationship gets bitter. Consequently, divorce rates in this country have shown a considerable increase in the past decade.

This article should help you figure out some of the ways to save and improve the bond that is marriage while keeping the importance of individualism and personal space in mind-

Teamwork: It is essential for both the individuals to work towards their marriage and show equal commitment. With only one person trying to build a better relationship while the other one shows minimal effort and goes astray reduces the sense of belongingness; eventually leading to estrangement.


Take Responsibility: Apologize when it’s your mistake and take responsibility for your actions, instead of going around in a continuous loop of the blame game.

Keep the Spark Alive: Take out time for each other whenever possible. A simple date night once in awhile or a weekend getaway with undivided attention to the partner helps to keep the romance alive in long term relationships which more often than not fades away with time, without effort from the partners.

Appreciate: Appreciating the partner’s efforts are probably the most important factor in any marriage. It avoids the individual feeling as though he/she has been taken for granted; which is the root cause of most marital problems.

Therapy: Marital therapy is usually beneficial when people are unable to deal with their differences within the marriage. Some therapists use a client-centred approach in understanding the issues. In a collectivist society like ours, family therapy is usually used because the family of both the partners play a major role in their lives.

if you  have any issue regarding the above issue .You can contact me on given below address.

Diabetes – Self Management Tips

admin one comments


Are you suffering from diabetes and are looking for ideal at home management remedies? Diabetes is a health condition, which occurs when the blood sugar level of the body rises. There are several ways following which you will be successfully able to manage your diabetes. They are as follows:

1.Exercise regularly and track your workout patterns. Exercise is the most important lifestyle choice for a diabetic patient, which allows you to maintain a good shape. It boosts your body’s metabolism rate and insulin uptake process. By taking notes on your exercising habits, you will be able to make timely and required changes.

2.Stop consuming fast food. Try to abstain from eating outside food and reduce your intake of sugar, salt and high calorie food. Meal should be prepared at home using light ingredients and less amount of salt and sugar.

3.Quit smoking as it is very harmful, especially if you are a diabetic. Smoking narrows your blood vessels, as a result of which, your blood circulation gets disrupted.

4.Increase your fiber intake. Fiber is beneficial for all diabetic patients and helps in smooth functioning of your digestive processes. It also help in reducing your cholesterol and blood sugar levels.

5.Take care and pay attention to your feet properly. You should wash your feet in lukewarm water regularly and dry them gently. You should moisturize your feet with a lotion. Check on your feet for cuts, sores, redness, swelling and blisters and consult a doctor in case of an unusual foot sore.

6.Get your eyes checked frequently as diabetes affects your vision in serious ways, which may also lead to blindness. Regular eye checkups will help you to prevent retinopathy.

7.Take proper care of your teeth which includes brushing and flossing at least two times every day. This is because diabetes makes you prone to several serious gum infections. Go for regular dental checkups if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in case you observe swollen, red gums, consult your doctor immediately.

8.Avoid stress and adapt ways to eliminate stress. Your body hormones, which are produced in relation to intense stress, prevent insulin from working efficiently, which increases your blood sugar levels and stress levels further. Relaxation techniques are effective for dealing with stress.

9.Opt for several small meals instead of a few large meals every day. This helps in keeping your digestive processes active, which in turn increase insulin sensitivity.


For further information and Consultation contact

Dr .Sanjay Sharma MD Medicine


MGS Hospital,Punjabi Bagh ,

New Delhi

Depression – Know How it is killing you

admin 2 comments


We are all emotional beings and often have our good and bad days. However, we are all wired differently, making our minds work in unique ways. Reasons that make a person feel low are different for different people; what may be depressing for one person may not be depressing for the other. The degree of sadness can also vary from person to person.

Depression, with a feeling of complete hopelessness and despair, is a mood disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men. Depressed people describe life as impending doom (a feeling that something terrible is about to happen). They are often consumed with the feeling of living in a black hole not knowing what the future holds, and feelings of lifelessness, emptiness, anger, and restlessness.

Some of the telltale signs of depression are listed below:

  1. Feeling of hopelessness and helplessness
  2. Tiredness
  3. Lack of concentration
  4. Easily irritated, bothered, or angered
  5. Inability to control negative thoughts
  6. Losing interest in activities that you once enjoyed
  7. Reckless behaviour, which was not noticed earlier
  8. Change in sleeping and eating patterns
  9. Difficulty in performing tasks that you once accomplished easily
  10. Worsening alcohol and cigarette consumption

Here are some of the reasons why people feel depressed:

  1. Problems in marriage or relationships
  2. Financial issues
  3. Chronic health issues
  4. Alcohol or drug abuse
  5. Unemployment
  6. Recent life events that were stressful
  7. Lack of social support
  8. Loneliness and isolation
  9. Early childhood trauma or abuse
  10. Managing depression

Accepting that you are depressed is a big step, which helps in managing it better.

  1. Speak out: The most important thing is to find a person whom you can confide in. A trained person or a good confidante can help you by just listening to you.In most cases, depression can be managed by seeing a qualified counsellor. Medications may also be useful in some cases.
  2. Sweat it out: While it may sound very tiring, exercising for even 15 minutes can bring relief. The more you exercise, the better you are bound to feel. Exercise also releases mood-enhancing chemicals that beat depression.
  3. Eat right: Foods with omega-3 fatty acids can help improve one’s mood while foods with sugar and refined carbs can have a negative impact on one’s mood. Change your diet to include mood elevating foods. Binging on junk food is common among depressed people, leading to weight gain and other complications.

So, while you may feel like you are in a black hole, there is definitely light at the end of the tunnel.

If you see somebody is feeling this way,Share this article .so that somebody may get benefited.

If you have some questions regarding this ,Let me know .


admin No Comments

Eyes who had lost the tears ,lost something of immense value. Tears clears the dirt on heart and makes path of soul clean and Clears–Dr.B.S.Arora

While some people see tears as a sign of weakness, for others crying is a crucial way of dealing with grief. Though as children we’re told not to cry and to ‘keep a hold’ of our emotions, letting go of a few tears can help alleviate grief and emotional distress.

Here are a few reasons crying could be a good idea when dealing with loss.

  1. Crying can stimulate the release of endorphins: Crying cleanses the mind of negative emotions and allows you to express your emotions. Crying can be described as a reaction to pain and in order to control pain, the body releases endorphins. Endorphins are also known as happy hormones as they block the transmission of pain signals and create a sense of contentment. These chemicals can take a little time to have an effect and hence in most cases, you will notice an improvement in your mood after a good cry.
  2. Crying elevates the mood: Crying can help reduce your body’s manganese levels. A higher than normal manganese level can heighten anxiety, irritability, tiredness and  emotional  disturbances. By lowering manganese levels, the brain is left with enough space for happier emotions and hence crying can help elevate a person’s mood.
  3. Crying stimulates the body’s parasympathetic nervous system: The parasympathetic nervous sytstem  controls a number of functions including heart rate. Crying can stimulate this system and trigger a state of relaxation. For this reason, you may feel sleepy after crying. This gives your body time to relax and deal with the problem at hand with a calmer mind.
  4. Crying helps deal with stress: A stressful experience or emotional situation can cause a build-up of stress hormones known as cortisol. As the levels of cortisol increase in the body, it goes into flight or fight mode as an automatic response to stress. Crying reduces the cortisol levels and helps relieve tension and stress almost immediately.
  5. Crying is cathartic: Every day we are exposed to conflicts and stressful situations that can build up into resentments and leave a person feeling anxious and depressed. Sometimes, giving vent to emotions and crying can help release these pent-up feeling and heap cleanse the mind of these negative emotions. Crying also allows us to open ourselves up to the people around and can improve the levels of intimacy between them. In this way, it can help a person become part of a community. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult me.